Pipe installation processes may seem so easy due to the expediency and the convenience offered by the current technological advancements. That doesn’t mean that one should perform pipe installation processes on his own. It is indeed a crucial task which needs proper planning and outlines usually done by plumbing professionals and skilled engineers with the required expertise in their field. And they follow one common set of steps to thrive in the installation. Here are the six primary steps followed in installing and laying a new sewer pipe.
Sewer pipes, be it sanitary or storm sewer, are typically constructed and installed within excavated heavy trenches. Because excavation processes are inherently dangerous, many laws are made to prevent accidents and promote the safety of the plumbing contractors and its labourers. Aside from that, this is also made to avoid damaging the properties and equipment to get rid of multiplying the problem and its costs rapidly. Most excavation processes are done with the aid of running heavy equipment such as a backhoe but trenching machines are becoming more popular nowadays.
Trenchless technologies may be more convenient for pipe installations but it is inevitable that excavation, though reduced for up to 80%, is still necessary. Rehabilitating infiltrated pipes, sewer replacements and restoration still needs excavations for the receiving and feeding pits.
2. Line and grade control
Determining the grade and the line of the sewer pipes are very necessary for pipe installation processes. It is essential to know the location and the depth of the sewer pipes so as the proper and required grade the pipe must be laid to maintain its velocity – for gravity sewer systems though. There are two famous methods in establishing and maintaining a sewer pipes depth and grade. These methods are the fixed beam laser method and the string line method. Reference points are established with the aid of a surveying machine which primarily initiates the process and the structural crew maintains the line and the grade using one of the aforementioned methods.
3. Pipe bedding
Proper pipe beddings are necessary as it supports the physical and structural integrity of your sewer pipes. This is done to proffer great care to the pipe especially to the areas which need it most but are oftentimes sloppily and shoddily performed. Aggregate crushed rock is the most appropriate material for pipe bedding but sand and gravel might be used as well given that they are well-compacted. A well-compressed pipe base is commonly done by carefully excavating the trench base into a true grade and places the bedding material in the bottom while gradually compacting it. It will be followed by the gradual compaction of the bedding material into both sides of the pipe after laying it.
4. Pipe laying
Pipe laying would seem so easy to do but this step requires expert handling and excellent care to avoid damaging the pipes and other facilities. Small pipes may be laid and moved by hand but large trenches should be done with the aid of machines and heavy equipment such as a forklift of a backhoe. Bell and spigot pipes should be well-laid and well-supported by removing a part of the pipe bedding and properly accommodating the bell to secure its structural performance and integrity.
5. Pipe joining
Pipes have various types of joints which cause the differences in the pipe joining processes. In a bell and spigot pipe, they should be laid in a manner where the bell end faces upstream. Other joint types would basically depend on the manufacturer’s instructions to ensure that no joint leakage occurs.
6. Trench backfilling
Trench backfilling refers to the placing of the backfill material over the newly-laid pipe. This is composed of three significant elements which are the restoration of the ground surface, the compaction of the backfill into the excavation until completely filling it and the protection given to the newly installed pipe from crushing, breaking and movements basically caused by the backfill material.